The IGAD Drought Resilience and Sustainability Initiative (IDDRSI) Strategy is aimed at addressing the effects of drought and related shocks in the IGAD region in a sustainable and holistic manner. The decision to end drought emergences was taken by IGAD and East African Community (EAC) Heads of State and Government at a Summit convened in Nairobi on 9th September 2011, following the severe drought that devastated the region in 2010/2011. The Summit took the bold decision to address the effects of recurring droughts on vulnerable communities in the IGAD region, calling for increased commitment by affected countries and Development Partners to support investments in sustainable development especially in the Arid and Semiarid Lands (ASALs). The Nairobi Summit assigned the IGAD Secretariat the role of leading and coordinating the implementation of the decision; and urged all countries to work together as a region and all concerned to do things differently, working concertedly and holistically, combining relief and development interventions, aimed at building resilience to future shocks.
Following the Nairobi Heads of State Summit in September 2011, IGAD was given the mandate to coordinate regional initiatives to build resilience to drought in the Horn of Africa (HoA). Each member states have prepared their own country program paper.
In the Country Programming Paper, each IGAD member state articulates its overall IDDRSI priorities to build drought disaster resilience. Those priorities are reflected in the CPP according to the common Priority Intervention Areas found in IDDRSI. The CPP is then used as a basis to obtain funding for new projects and programmes.
In addition to the CPP there is also a regional programming paper which looks at the regional and cross-border dimensions under IDDRSI. Those dimensions will be linked to the responsibilities of IGAD.
The objective of Regional Programming Paper is ‘To enhance livelihood resilience of pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in drought prone areas'.
This is in line with IDDRSI vision and goal:
Vision: To enhance drought resilient communities and sustainability in the IGAD region
Overall Goal: Drought disaster resilient communities, institutions and ecosystem in ASALs of IGAD by 2027.
DROUGHT RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS PROGRAMME IN THE HORN OF AFRICA (DRSLP I)
PHASE I : Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, and IGAD Secretariat
The project interventions will support activities to rebuild existing livelihoods through investment in natural resources (water, pasture) management, integrated land management and ecosystem restoration and protection and also investment in agricultural and livestock infrastructure, while improving storage, market and transport infrastructure, such as rural roads. The project aims at addressing the root causes of the region’s vulnerability in order to build a medium to long-term resilience against drought, enhance peace building and conflict resolution and equitable utilization of the limited natural resources as elaborated by the earlier study.ural Resource Management.
Natural Resource Management
Enhanced water infrastructure for human, agriculture and livestock
Development of water storage and other related infrastructures
Rehabilitation and upgrading of existing irrigation schemes, emergency water supply systems
Protection of water reservoirs and conservation of water catchment areas.
Enhanced Regional Water Basins Cooperation and Coordination
Improvement of Livestock Infrastructure and management
Improvement of livestock marketing infrastructure for market access.
Market infrastructure such as market enclosures, holding grounds, etc
Communication systems in pastoral rural.
Undertake Regional market study to optimize potential value chains and strengthen regional trade.
Improvement of livestock health, infrastructure, and management.
Carrying out a livestock census.
Strengthening institutional capacity in disease diagnosis, Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary measures, standards and procedures development and certification;
Support genetic improvement of local breeds
Improved rangeland management.
Project Management and Capacity Building
National and Regional Capacity Building activities to strengthen operational capabilities in the Region.
Development of national policies and legislation to enhance community participation in the management of water, pasture and livestock marketing
Enhance regional market information systems.
Knowledge generation through research for development and information management dissemination through extension.
Mitigation and adaptation to Climate Change.
Development and Promotion of Gender policies.
Support to IGAD Secretariat for Technical Assistance, Capacity Building.
IGAD will carry out Regional Studies (assessments, diagnostic, mapping, feasibility, etc.) on Water resources
Livestock (numbers, trade and marketing, herd modelling, TADs),
Livelihood economies (coping strategies, diversification, food and nutrition security, etc.), -Regional and national policies on water resources, livestock, food security, etc
Project’s target area and population
Drought prone areas
Beyya Dader (Région d’Ali Sabieh), Gaggade-Derela (Région de Dikhil) and Weima (Région de Tadjourah-Obock)
Afar and Somali regions
Baringo, Isiolo, Marsabit, Samburu, Turkana and West Pokot
20 Million People
98 Million Cattle
98 million cattle
98 million cattle
173 sheep and goats
The project has been appraised in five of the eight countries of the HoA (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia (Somaliland), Sudan, and IGAD Secretariat. However due to financial constraints, the programme will be implemented in phases. Phase I (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya and IGAD Secretariat) will be implemented using the ADF 12 Resources. Subsequent phases will include the remaining countries (Eritrea, Uganda, Somaliland-Somalia- Sudan and South Sudan) and will be appraised and brought for Board consideration depending on resource availability in subsequent ADF cycles.
The project will provide human and institutional support to IGAD Secretariat to facilitate implementation of the drought resilience initiatives in the Region. A Regional Coordination Unit will be established at the IGAD Secretariat, composed of a Coordinator, Water Resources Expert/NRM Expert, Livestock Production Expert, Food Security/Early Warning/Nutrition Expert, Monitoring and Evaluation Expert/Knowledge Management Expert, Database experts/focal points for collecting and uploading data from member countries. The staff will have the required expertise to conduct relevant regional studies that would support the drought resilience initiatives.
At country level, each country of the programme will implement its own identified resilience activities, using the national technical institutions. The overall coordination of the programme will be carried out at the regional level by IGAD but working in close liaison with the various governments of the HoA. At national levels the relevant line ministries will be the executing agencies and will be responsible for the day to day implementation of activities. The key responsible ministries will be those in charge of Water, Agriculture, Livestock Production, Trade, and Lands, depending on each country. During the implementation phase, a robust monitoring and evaluation system will be established both at country level and at IGAD Secretariat, to track implementation progress and monitor performance regularly through supervision, mid-term and end-term evaluation missions. At national level, a project implementation arrangement has been defined, comprising a Project implementation Unit and a Project Steering Committee. The discussions held in each country highlighted the capacity of the respective Executing Agencies, in terms of financial management and procurement, which was found generally acceptable, due to the past experience of the EAs to implement and manage donors’ projects/programmes.
The PIU will carry out the overall day-to-day implementation of the activities of the national project. The staffing of the PIUs has been defined at country level and in general PIUs will comprise: a Project manager, an Accountant, a Procurement specialist, an M&E specialist, as core staff. The established National Project Steering Committee (PSC) will provide policy guidance, review project progress, and approve Annual Workplan & Budget. The composition of the national PSCs that will include the main partners is detailed in respective country annexes. The PSCs are expected to meet at least twice a year.
DROUGHT RESILIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS PROGRAMME IN THE HORN OF AFRICA
PHASE II : Somalia
The Somalia component of the Drought Resilience and Sustainable Livelihoods Programme – Project II (DRSLP II) in the Horn of Africa is part of a multinational programme that covers Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. The project will be implemented in Puntland, Somaliland and South Central regions of Somalia. For insecurity reasons, the Federal Government of Somalia and the Bank agreed to limit the DRSLP II activities for South Central Somalia to capacity building of line ministries. The total cost of the Somalia Component is UA 15 million (5 million from Transition Support Facility, and 10 million from the ADF XIII Regional Operations Window).
The project is expected to improve living conditions of rural community beneficiaries in target areas of Puntland and Somaliland estimated to be 800 000 people and their 4 million animals by i) improving water availability and accessibility, and the environment through land degradation and desertification control measures; ii) improvement of livestock production and management, animal health and infrastructure for market access; and; ii) improvement of opportunities for women in terms of water management, accessing markets and generating more income; vi) building human and institutional capacity to handle agro-pastoral production. Due to the seasonal migratory nature of the pastoralist, more people and livestock from other regions of the country are expected to benefit from the project as many will move to the project area at least part of the year. The project is expected to also train locally and regionally at least 100 personnel (30% women) in the ministries of Livestock, Agriculture, and Water; and about 1,500 community members (at-least 30% women) will benefit from sensitization and awareness workshops on natural resources conservation and management, peace building and conflict resolution
Beneficiaries target areas
4 Million Animals
Project Descritption The DRSLP II is geared towards building resilience and sustainable livelihoods for pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in drought-prone areas of Somalia. The overall goal is to contribute to poverty reduction and accelerated economic growth on a sustainable basis in Somalia. This will be achieved by investing in natural resources (water, pasture) management, integrated land management and ecosystem restoration and protection as well as rebuilding of agricultural and livestock infrastructures,. The medium and long term goal of the programme is to stabilize the pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems and improve livelihoods and resilience of the production systems. The specific objectives of the programme are:
Improvement of water availability and accessibility, and improve the environment through land degradation and desertification control measures ;
Improvement of livestock production and management, animal health and infrastructure for market access;
Building human and institutional capacity to handle agro-pastoral production, improve policy and institutional frameworks; and
Improved opportunities for women in terms of water management, accessing markets and generating more income.
Component of the projects
Natural Resources Management
Construction/rehabilitation of 11 Baleys (flood water harvesting reservoirs) with 50,000 m3 volume; 6 boreholes with ancillary structures (animal troughs, pipes, reservoir tank, generator); 30 surface/subsurface sand dams, 1 water storage steel tank (500 m3).
Land degradation and desertification control measures, including flood water diversions and water spreading in 500 ha in 3 locations in Puntlan
Market Access and Trade
Construction/rehabilitation of 190 km of rural feeder roads, 5 livestock market enclosures (with loading ramps, watering points, sanitation and shelters) 12 certification points (holding grounds, pasture/feed, water, shades, vet services).
Establishment/rehabilitation of 5 regional animal health centres with laboratory diagnosis and disease surveillance capabilities; 7 mobile veterinary clinical services (equipment and shades).
Capacity building of 100 personnel (at least 30% women) in the ministries of Livestock, Agriculture, and Water
Rehabilitation, furnishing and equipping of Mogadishu Water Agency Building; offices of the Ministries of Agriculture and Livestock in Mogadishu, Middle & Lower Shabelle regions.
Sensitization and awareness raising workshops on natural resources conservation and management, peace building and conflict resolution for about 1,500 community members (at-least 30% women)
Technical assistance to the project management and coordination at national and regional levels
The drylands hold about 95% of all the cattle in the country and produce 85% of all milk and meat
South Sudan Has the 6th largest livestock herd in Africa, with an estimated 11,7 million head of cattle, 12,4 million goats and 12,1 million sheep.
The livestock sectors exports or live animals annually average 1,6 million heads; 86% of which are sheep, 8% camels, 5% goats and 1% cattle
The livestock sector in Djibouti after the drought passed from more than 1 million heads to 775,000 heads.
It is estimated that the total number of people affected by the 2011 drought was 13.4 million5 including as many as 4.5 million Ethiopians6, when the drought was at its peak.
Overall the output of the livestock sector largely originating from the ASAL contributes 12-16% to Ethiopia Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 30-35% to the agricultural GDP
The arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) cover over 80% of the landmass and are predominantly inhabited by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities who mostly depend on livestock production.
According to the inter-agency Kenya Food Security Steering Group (KFSSG) an estimated 4.5 million people were affected in 2011, 3.8 million in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) and 700,000 in non-ASAL areas
90 per cent of wildlife in Kenya is found in the ASALs