Livelihood systems in the drought-prone arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) of the Horn of Africa (HoA) have been under-resourced, leaving their population more vulnerable to external stressors. Droughts of varying intensity and increasing frequency have hit the HoA in the past four decades, mechanisms were not in place for drought resilience. These perennial drought crises have severely impoverished the natural resource base of the ASALs, rendering pastoralists' traditional livelihoods throughout the HoA increasingly tenuous. Climate change will likely worsen and intensify the frequency and magnitude of droughts and floods in the region.
IGAD and the member States developed a strategy to end drought emergencies called the IGAD Drought Disaster Resilience and Sustainability Initiative (IDDRSI). The IDDRSI strategy has markedly changed design elements of the development programmes and projects by harmonising short and medium-term humanitarian interventions with long-term development programmes to build drought resilience over time.
Within the IDDRSI framework of action, Regional Pastoral Livelihoods Resilience Project (RPLRP) seeks to develop regional solutions to challenges faced by pastoralists who reside in the ASALs of Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia, to enhance opportunities for livelihood development available to them. The ecosystems from which pastoralists derive their livelihoods often go beyond national borders as do the livestock market networks that provide them with opportunities for income growth. Seasonal and cross-border mobility is a crucial feature of pastoralism allowing pastoralists to carry out livestock-based livelihoods in the ASALs, to cope with droughts and to manage conflicts over natural resource use. Thus regional approach to the challenges of ASALs is important aspect.
To enhance livelihoods resilience of pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in cross-border drought prone areas of Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda as well as improve the capacity of these Countries’ governments to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.
Natural Resources Management: aims at enhancing the sustainable management and secures access of pastoral and agro-pastoral communities at natural resources (water and pasture) with trans-boundary significance
Market Access and Trade: aims at improving the market access of the agro-pastoralists and pastoralists to the intra-regional and international markets of livestock and livestock products.
Livelihood Support: aims at enhancing the livelihoods of Pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities.
Pastoral Risk Management: aims at enhancing drought-related hazards and preparedness, prevention and response at the national and regional levels.
Project Progress at IGAD Level, until June 2018
Developing Cross-border Maps as planning tool
- Water infrastructure in the cross-border areas mapped using secondary data. Web access: https://icpac.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=e8ee3614892049f880d287347023bb3f
- Livestock market in cross-border areas mapped, and available on web, Web link: https://www.arcgis.com/apps/MapJournal/index.html?appid=dbf3d8b494f243e5b2595c57ce96136a
- Latent and active inter-community conflict in cross-border areas mapped, Link for the maps:
- Land use of cross-border area and invasive species distribution mapped for Cluster 1 & 2
- Regional Training for capacity building
- Drought Disaster Contingency Planning Trainer Training: Regional training for 14 staff from the three project countries trained for five days; training manual prepared to cascade the training to sub-national level;
- Livestock Emergency guidelines and Standards (LEGS): Regional five-day training organized for 14 staff from the three project countries and IDDRSI national coordinators;
- GIS and Web-based map editing: Regional five days training organized for 6 staff from the project countries conducted to enable continued map update on web for the water infrastructure map;
- Integrated Water Resource Management System (IWRMS) training: Five days training on use of the IWRMS software by software developer organized for 6 experts from ICPAC and ICPALD;
- Equipment Support for ICPAC: Integrated Water Resource Information System (IWRIS) software and equipment (Computers, Server and UPS) procured for ICPAC to build capacity in climate early warning;
- Regional Strategy
- Five year (2017 – 20121) Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Regional Strategy prepared for IGAD region and document disseminated. Some countries started adopting at national level;
- Five year (2017 – 2021) Animal Health Regional Strategy prepared for IGAD. Countries started adopting the strategy to prevent and control trans-boundary animal disease.
- Rangeland Management Regional Strategy for IGAD Region preparation process started.
- Regional Study and Policy review
- Stock-taking study and gap-analysis of financial products for pastoralist was conducted and document disseminated;
- Gap-analysis study of cross-border livestock trade policy and practices conducted and report disseminated. It was used as input for IGAD cross-border informal trade protocol;
- Land policy in the context of rangeland management reviewed for the three project countries and report disseminated
- Review conducted for role of private and public sector in supply of animal health services and report disseminated
- Pastoralist area early warning system (EWS) and risk profiling methods used by the three project counties reviewed and report disseminated
- Contingency planning practices of the three project countries reviewed and salient issues identified in the report and report disseminated
- Potential Alternative Livelihood in cross-border areas identified and value chain analysis conducted for selected products;
The RPLRP in each of the three countries and IGAD operate independently but connected at IGAD level providing sense of Regional context of the project. At IGAD the project coordination staff is housed in ICPALD, Nairobi, operating under the Division of Agriculture and Environment. Steering committee consisting of Directors and head of the IGAD specialized institutions (CEWARN, ICPAC and ICPALD) oversight the IGAD RPLRP implementation. Activities under the IGAD RPLRP are executed by staff of CEWARN, ICPAC, ICPALD and IGAD Secretariat as coordinated by RPLRP staff at the coordination unit.
In Ethiopia RPLRP Project coordination unit, housed within Ministry of Agriculture, and the team is responsible for guiding project execution at Regional state and Woreda levels. The PCU also extend to four Regional States (Oromia, SNNP, Ethiopia Somali and Afar) and 21 woredas. The activities and progresses are also over sighted by Project Steering Committees formed at Federal, Regional State and Woreda levels.
In Kenya the RPLRP Coordination Unit is housed in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries. At 14 counties level, project coordination unit staff will lead day to day execution of the project. The project operation and progress is over sighted by steering committee established at National and county levels.
In Uganda the RPLRP National Coordination Unit is housed in the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries. At the district level, the District Project Coordination Unit staff carries out the day to day execution of the project. The project operation and progress is over sighted by a National Steering Committee at Central level and District Technical Committees at District level.
Funding: World Bank/IDA
- IGAD grant value US$ 5 million;
- Kenya loan value US$ 77 million;
- Ethiopia loan value US$ 75 million
- Uganda loan value US$ 40 million
- Regional Workshops
- Tree regional working group workshops organized in an effort to harmonize Grade and Standards of live animal, meat and hide and skin of the three project countries. The Countries now harmonized Grade and Standards for the three products.
- Four annual workshops for Regional Animal feed and rangeland working group organized to facilitate experience sharing and discuss challenges;
- Regional workshop organized to discuss about IGAD member States Animal Breeding and Multiplication policy and practices and share good practice in the member States
- Regional workshop organized to open discussion about Land governance and pastoralism for IGAD member States – challenges and opportunities of land governance in pastoral areas discussed
- At least 9 regional workshops organized to enrich IGAD led Studies, policy reviews and strategies.
- Cross-border coordination
- Cross-border Disease surveillance and synchronized vaccination have been facilitated yearly between Uganda and Kenya and Kenya and Ethiopia;
- Four Cross-border conflict prevention, management and resolution (CPMR) platform established and meetings facilitate to reduce incidence of cross-border conflict
- Periodic Cross-border planning meetings organized for the project countries to harmonize activities in cross-border areas;
- Cross-border infrastructure (water, livestock market and rangeland development) sites in the project countries agreed through IGAD coordination,
- Regional Coordination
- Seven implementation support mission (ISM) wrap up meetings coordinated in order to facilitate cross-learning among project countries,
- Project countries supported by training and software to have common M&E framework (DiMonotoring)
- Baseline study data need, data collection protocol and reporting harmonized,
- Knowledge Sharing
- One Exchange visit organized on livestock market co-management through public-private partnership (PPP) for Ethiopia and Uganda
- One Regional Knowledge sharing fair organized, in partnership with other IGAD program, on cross-border drought resilience;
- At least three Climate Outlook Forum (COF) participation supported for the project countries to enable disseminate climate early warning
- Based on studies and policy review three (3) policy brief prepared and widely disseminated to key stakeholders