PHASE II - Sudan

The Drought Resilience and Sustainable Livelihoods Programme - Project II (DRSLP II) is aimed at enhancing drought resilience and to improve sustainable livelihoods of the pastoral and agro-pastoral population will be will be implemented in (i) Gedarif State, (ii) Kassala State and (iii) White Nile State. The sector goal is to contribute to poverty reduction, food security and accelerated sustainable economic growth through enhanced rural income. The DRSLP Project I was approved in 2012 but Sudan could not be included due to the problem of access to funds. Due to the importance of the participation of Sudan in this Regional activity and to ensure effective implementation of the programme as the phenomenon of drought and the nature of the pastoralist does not know borders, Sudan is now being considered for Project II. 

Beneficiaries target areas
Gedarif StateKassala StateWhite Nile
Target population~4.84  Million People

~ 1.3 Million womens

~ 15.46 million livestock (cattle, sheep, goats and camels)

The Programme activities, in Sudan, will be initially implemented in (i) Gedarif State, (ii) Kassala State and (iii) White Nile State. Subsequently, this will be upscaled to cover other drought prone areas/States.


The DRSLP II has 4 components:
Natural Resources Management;
Market Access and Trade;
Livelihoods Support; and
Programme Management and Capacity Building


The DRSLP II components will be complementary to each other, so some people will benefit from more than one intervention. In addition, about 600,000 people will indirectly benefit from the DRSLP II along the livestock marketing value chain. The Programme is expected to create 600 full-time skilled and 4,000 part-time/unskilled jobs in (i) infrastructure construction/rehabilitation, and (ii) livestock, feed and food crop production, processing and marketing which will benefit men, women and youths. To promote inclusive and green growth, the DRSLP II will implement the planned technical, economic and environmental activities, in a sustainable manner, and facilitate equitable allocation of resources to participating rural men, women and youths. The DRSLP II will contribute to achieving some indicators of the Millennium Development Goals #1 (eradicate extreme poverty and hunger) and #7 (ensure environmental sustainability). 


  • Needs Assessment: In line with economic diversification, the Government of Sudan launched the Development Plan (2012-2016) and the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2012) to scale-up agricultural development. The agriculture sector is an important source of economic growth and job creation which greatly contributes to poverty reduction. 
  • Bank’s Added Value: The Bank’s Agricultural Sector Strategy (AgSS: 2010-2014) Pillar I focuses on agricultural infrastructure. The Bank has achieved some long term development experience in supporting and financing the development of agricultural infrastructure. These experiences guided the Bank in selectively choosing the right combination of components to address the drought resilience and sustainable livelihood issues in Sudan. Lessons learnt from the Bank’s involvement in agriculture sector including the need to involve beneficiaries in infrastructure selection, siting, construction and management in order to enhance ownership and iv sustainability are used to design and implement the proposed interventions. DRSLP II - Sudan Component is also in line with the Bank’s Sudan Country Brief (2014-2016), the Bank’s Strategy for Engagement in Fragile States, Gender Strategy (2014-2018) and Ten Year Strategy (TYS: 2013-2022). 
  • Knowledge Management: Knowledge gained through implementation of previous Projects and Programmes has been used in designing DRSLP II - Sudan Component. Knowledge that will be generated through implementation of DRSLP II - Sudan Component will be useful during design and management of future similar Programmes. The gained knowledge will be documented through progress reports, mid-term review report, beneficiary impact assessment report and programme completion report. Under the overall coordination of IGAD, a cross border knowledge generation and sharing in the area of drought resilience and sustainable livelihoods will be promoted across the Horn of Africa and also other parts of Africa.


The Regional Programming Paper (RPP) for the drought resilience  and sustainability initiative in the IGAD Region was developed by the IGAD Secretariat in consultation with member states, development partners and other stakeholders, including non-state actors. It is the programmatic and implementation arm of the IGAD Drought Disaster Resilience and Sustainability Initiative (IDDRSI) to be operationalize at both country and regional levels. The purpose of the RPP is

  1. To develop a common understanding of the aspects that define the regional character of the drought resilience and sustainability initiative and uphold the logic of a regional approach in implementing the initiative;
  2. To define the modalities of cooperation and the policies, arrangements, methods of work and institutional set up needed to enhance and facilitate effective cooperation in the development and implementation of programmes and projects aimed at ending drought emergencies in the IGAD region;
  3. To propose regional actions and mechanisms through which the implementation of the drought resilience and sustainability initiative in the IGAD region can be promoted, planned, supported and executed. 

The RPP is part of the IDDRSI Strategy, which arose from the collective international consensus of IGAD Member States and development partners to work together coordinated efforts aimed at ending drought emergencies through building sustainable livelihoods. Consequently the RPP is both an agreement between the IGAD member states and a framework to guide the process of implementing the drought resilience initiative. The initial concept of the RPP was endorsed by the IGAD Ministerial and High Level Development Partners’ meeting in April 2012. As a component of the IDDRSI Strategic Plan, the RPP highlights the regional character of the drought resilience initiative and underscores the importance of a regional approach to achieve the stated plan objectives.  


Persistent and widespread drought is a characteristic recurrent feature of the climate in the arid and semiarid lands (ASALs) of the IGAD region, comprising Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. While the ASALs cover 60 -70% of the IGAD region, only 30% of the total population of about 200 million people found in the IGAD region live in these ASAL areas. Further, with more than 90% of the agriculture in the ASALs being rain-fed, there is a direct link between drought and food insecurity. 

In many parts of this region, drought and the harsh ecological circumstances, exacerbated by climate change phenomena, war and conflicts, has created conditions of chronic vulnerability with extreme poverty, persistent food insecurity, widespread economic hardships and untold human suffering.  With a fixed natural resource base that is being eroded by recurrent severe drought events, compounded by climate variability and the effects of an increasing human and livestock population and the associated unplanned urban development and settlements, the ASALs are in the throes of massive socio-economic and environmental changes that have profound negative implications for traditional livelihoods. Under the prevailing socio-political and economic conditions the populations in these areas are largely pastoral and agro-pastoral communities, who are highly vulnerable to external shocks, including droughts, climate change and violent conflicts and frequently require humanitarian assistance to survive. 

In 2010/2011, the region was hit by a severe drought that affected an estimated 13 million people and exacerbated food insecurity to famine levels in some parts of the IGAD region. The severity of this crisis brought to the fore the catastrophic impact of recurrent droughts and their dire humanitarian, environmental and productivity consequences, while they simultaneously underpinned the ineffectiveness of past drought response approaches and inspired the need to find more enduring solutions. The current food security crisis in the region is a stark reminder that insufficient attention has been paid to addressing livelihood vulnerability in the region, particularly in the ASALs. Decades of humanitarian assistance could not solve the root causes of recurring drought and other emergencies. It is apparent that it is not drought, but rather vulnerability, inadequate response and defective remedial actions that have thrown the region into repeated food shortage crises. Too often in the past, the international community has lost focus on longer-term resilience building initiatives, after recovery and reconstruction objectives have been achieved and media attention lost after the crisis has subsided. Indeed the 2010/2011 drought crisis reflected the shortcomings of past approaches used by governments and donors to respond to drought and related disasters through relief and emergency interventions and brought to the fore the urgent need to do things differently in order to prevent future drought emergencies in the region. Following the effects of the 2010/2011 drought induced disasters, there has been a strong commitment from the region and the international community to focus more seriously on interventions that will strengthen medium- and long-term resilience to disasters and ensure that the next drought does not result in another humanitarian crisis.



The RPP is a common framework for national and regional programmes developed to end drought emergencies, enhance drought resilience and build sustainability in the IGAD Region. While the individual IGAD Member States may have their own specificities (as described in the Member States Country Programme Papers), their dry land areas and drought-prone communities face common challenges and are often interconnected through, inter alia, natural resource sharing, livestock movement, regional trade and trans-boundary human and animal diseases. The RPP highlights the regional dimensions of the drought resilience and sustainability initiative and will be used to guide the development of projects and interventions.

The purpose of the RPP is fourfold:

  1. To develop a common understanding of the regional aspects, demands and expectations relating to the necessity for collective, simultaneous and coordinated action in the implementation of the IDDRSI Strategy;
  2. To propose common principles, policies, procedures, architecture and institutional set up of programmes to be developed by IGAD Member States under the general leadership and coordination of the IGAD Secretariat in order to achieve coherent, effective and monitorable action;
  3. To promote and facilitate regional interventions of a trans-boundary nature to complement the activities in the states.
  4. To define modalities of cooperation and provide a mechanism through which collective action, including resources mobilisation, necessitated by the regional character of the drought resilience initiative, can be organised and coordinated to enhance synergy and avoid duplication.  

The RPP pursues the following tenets: 

  1. To provide a shared understanding by the IGAD Secretariat, IGAD Member States and the development and implementing partners for the promotion and support of the implementation of the IDDRSI Strategy.
  2. To recognise the regional character of the drought problem, whose solution will require us to act nationally, but think regionally
  3. To mobilize resources jointly or in a harmonized and coordinated manner: Design common guidelines for  mobilisation of resources in support of the drought resilience and sustainability initiative for  Member States, development partners and the IGAD Secretariat  for national and multi-national projects, to enhance harmonised action and synergy, while avoiding duplication
  4. To enable states to agree on a common approach to drought resilience, leading to joint, collective, concerted and simultaneous actions (policies and programmes) at national and regional levels
  5. To support states in promoting and prioritising drought resilience and sustainability in their annual budgets and development plans including increasing investments in the ASALs and support to drought resilience and sustainability projects and activities
  6. To institutionalize support for and combination of both relief and development activities in emergency, medium and long term development plans
  7. To encourage each Member State to harmonise and align activities intended to enhance drought resilience and sustainability with other states in the region, through regular contacts under the general coordination of the IGAD Secretariat
  8. To put in place a formal system for coordination at country level to enhance the implementation of the initiative
  9. To enhance, enforce and implement existing policies, frameworks, agreements, protocols and other instruments to share resources and shun conflicts
  10. To introduce or adopt such policies, frameworks, strategies, supporting tools and instruments as will be necessary for the implementation of the drought and sustainability initiative 
  11. To share knowledge and experiences through regular contact and exchange information
  12. To agree on modalities of cooperation and joint action for the planning and execution of multi-national projects

The RPP will take advantage of the following opportunities:

  1. The vibrant livestock sector, which is presently acknowledged as a key contributor to the national economies of IGAD Member States; over 90% of the livestock population present in the IGAD region is found in the ASALs 
  2. The fact that pastoral and agro-pastoral production systems have a comparative advantage in offering the most effective use of the region’s abundant land and erratic climate
  3. The availability of options to develop more profitable, more integrated and drought resilient pastoralist systems 
  4. The strong and increasing demand for livestock (both within the Member States and region, the Middle East and in international markets), and the consequent need to facilitate key livestock production areas in arid and semi arid areas with supportive legal and policy frameworks and public and private sector investment
  5. The availability of options for diversification of livelihoods including the exploitation of non-wood forest products including gums, resins, spices, honey and artisanal minerals in these areas
  6. An unprecedented level of good will and commitment amongst the political leadership in the IGAD Member States and development partner, which has been consistently expressed at the highest levels since September 2011.
  7. Recent reviews that demonstrate the potential for soil carbon sequestration in dry land grazing areas and the multiple benefits of enhancing ecosystem services and processes for improving livelihoods, while contributing to adaptation to climate change impact
  8. A good wealth of existing experience and good practices, supported by various organizations, on which to build on by replication and up-scaling. 

The following major challenges will need to be addressed:

  1. The increasing frequency and severity of droughts; 
  2. The dramatic impact of these droughts on livestock populations and rain-fed crop production, which directly affect food and nutrition security; 
  3. The rapidly growing human populations in the face of declining natural resources (land, water) due to degradation, climate change and alternative use of these resources (e.g. for expansion of crop production); 
  4. Resource conflicts due to the scarcity of and competition for natural resources and 
  5. The high cost of delivering public services due to the low population densities and population movements of pastoral and itinerant communities.




Livelihood systems in the drought-prone arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) of the Horn of Africa (HoA) have been under-resourced, leaving their population more vulnerable to external stressors. Droughts of varying intensity and increasing frequency have hit the HoA in the past four decades, mechanisms were not in place for drought resilience. These perennial drought crises have severely impoverished the natural resource base of the ASALs, rendering pastoralists' traditional livelihoods throughout the HoA increasingly tenuous. Climate change will likely worsen and intensify the frequency and magnitude of droughts and floods in the region.

IGAD and the member States developed a strategy to end drought emergencies called the IGAD Drought Disaster Resilience and Sustainability Initiative (IDDRSI). The IDDRSI strategy has markedly changed design elements of the development programmes and projects by harmonising short and medium-term humanitarian interventions with long-term development programmes to build drought resilience over time.

Within the IDDRSI framework of action, Regional Pastoral Livelihoods Resilience Project (RPLRP) seeks to develop regional solutions to challenges faced by pastoralists who reside in the ASALs of Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia, to enhance opportunities for livelihood development available to them. The ecosystems from which pastoralists derive their livelihoods often go beyond national borders as do the livestock market networks that provide them with opportunities for income growth. Seasonal and cross-border mobility is a crucial feature of pastoralism allowing pastoralists to carry out livestock-based livelihoods in the ASALs, to cope with droughts and to manage conflicts over natural resource use. Thus regional approach to the challenges of ASALs is important aspect.


Project Objectives

To enhance livelihoods resilience of pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in cross-border drought prone areas of Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda as well as improve the capacity of these Countries’ governments to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

 Project components

  1. Natural Resources Management: aims at enhancing the sustainable management and secures access of pastoral and agro-pastoral communities at natural resources (water and pasture) with trans-boundary significance

  2. Market Access and Trade: aims at improving the market access of the agro-pastoralists and pastoralists to the intra-regional and international markets of livestock and livestock products.

  3. Livelihood Support: aims at enhancing the livelihoods of Pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities.

  4. Pastoral Risk Management: aims at enhancing drought-related hazards and preparedness, prevention and response at the national and regional levels.

Project Progress at IGAD Level, until June 2018

    • Developing Cross-border Maps as planning tool


      • Water infrastructure in the cross-border areas mapped using secondary data. Web access: https://icpac.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=e8ee3614892049f880d287347023bb3f
      • Livestock market in cross-border areas mapped, and available on web, Web link: https://www.arcgis.com/apps/MapJournal/index.html?appid=dbf3d8b494f243e5b2595c57ce96136a
      • Latent and active inter-community conflict in cross-border areas mapped, Link for the maps:
      • Land use of cross-border area and invasive species distribution mapped for Cluster 1 & 2
    • Regional Training for capacity building
      • Drought Disaster Contingency Planning Trainer Training: Regional training for 14 staff from the three project countries trained for five days; training manual prepared to cascade the training to sub-national level;
      • Livestock Emergency guidelines and Standards (LEGS): Regional five-day training organized for 14 staff from the three project countries and IDDRSI national coordinators;
      • GIS and Web-based map editing: Regional five days training organized for 6 staff from the project countries conducted to enable continued map update on web for the water infrastructure map;
      • Integrated Water Resource Management System (IWRMS) training: Five days training on use of the IWRMS software by software developer organized for 6 experts from ICPAC and ICPALD;
      • Equipment Support for ICPAC: Integrated Water Resource Information System (IWRIS) software and equipment (Computers, Server and UPS) procured for ICPAC to build capacity in climate early warning;
    • Regional Strategy
      • Five year (2017 – 20121) Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Regional Strategy prepared for IGAD region and document disseminated. Some countries started adopting at national level;
      • Five year (2017 – 2021) Animal Health Regional Strategy prepared for IGAD. Countries started adopting the strategy to prevent and control trans-boundary animal disease.
      • Rangeland Management Regional Strategy for IGAD Region preparation process started.
    •  Regional Study and Policy review
      • Stock-taking study and gap-analysis of financial products for pastoralist was conducted and document disseminated; 
      • Gap-analysis study of cross-border livestock trade policy and practices conducted and report disseminated. It was used as input for IGAD cross-border informal trade protocol;
      • Land policy in the context of rangeland management reviewed for the three project countries and report disseminated
      • Review conducted for role of private and public sector in supply of animal health services and report disseminated
      • Pastoralist area early warning system (EWS) and risk profiling methods used by the three project counties reviewed and report disseminated
      • Contingency planning practices of the three project countries reviewed and salient issues identified in the report and report disseminated
      • Potential Alternative Livelihood in cross-border areas identified and value chain analysis conducted for selected products;
Institutional Arrangement

The RPLRP in each of the three countries and IGAD operate independently but connected at IGAD level providing sense of Regional context of the project. At IGAD the project coordination staff is housed in ICPALD, Nairobi, operating under the Division of Agriculture and Environment. Steering committee consisting of Directors and head of the IGAD specialized institutions (CEWARN, ICPAC and ICPALD) oversight the IGAD RPLRP implementation. Activities under the IGAD RPLRP are executed by staff of CEWARN, ICPAC, ICPALD and IGAD Secretariat as coordinated by RPLRP staff at the coordination unit.


In Ethiopia RPLRP Project coordination unit, housed within Ministry of Agriculture, and the team is responsible for guiding project execution at Regional state and Woreda levels. The PCU also extend to four Regional States (Oromia, SNNP, Ethiopia Somali and Afar) and 21 woredas. The activities and progresses are also over sighted by Project Steering Committees formed at Federal, Regional State and Woreda levels. 


In Kenya the RPLRP Coordination Unit is housed in the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries. At 14 counties level, project coordination unit staff will lead day to day execution of the project. The project operation and progress is over sighted by steering committee established at National and county levels.


In Uganda the RPLRP National Coordination Unit is housed in the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries. At the district level, the District Project Coordination Unit staff carries out the day to day execution of the project. The project operation and progress is over sighted by a National Steering Committee at Central level and District Technical Committees at District level. 



Funding: World Bank/IDA

  • IGAD grant value US$ 5 million;
  • Kenya loan value US$ 77 million;
  • Ethiopia loan value US$ 75 million
  • Uganda loan value US$ 40 million



    • Regional Workshops
      • Tree regional working group workshops organized in an effort to harmonize Grade and Standards of live animal, meat and hide and skin of the three project countries. The Countries now harmonized Grade and Standards for the three products.
      • Four annual workshops for Regional Animal feed and rangeland working group organized to facilitate experience sharing and discuss challenges;
      • Regional workshop organized to discuss about IGAD member States Animal Breeding and Multiplication policy and practices and share good practice in the member States
      • Regional workshop organized to open discussion about Land governance and pastoralism for IGAD member States – challenges and opportunities of land governance in pastoral areas discussed
      • At least 9 regional workshops organized to enrich IGAD led Studies, policy reviews and strategies.
    • Cross-border coordination
      • Cross-border Disease surveillance and synchronized vaccination have been facilitated yearly between Uganda and Kenya and Kenya and Ethiopia;
      • Four Cross-border conflict prevention, management and resolution (CPMR) platform established and meetings facilitate to reduce incidence of cross-border conflict
      • Periodic Cross-border planning meetings organized for the project countries to harmonize activities in cross-border areas;
      • Cross-border infrastructure (water, livestock market and rangeland development) sites in the project countries agreed through IGAD coordination,
    • Regional Coordination 
      • Seven implementation support mission (ISM) wrap up meetings coordinated in order to facilitate cross-learning among project countries,
      • Project countries supported by training and software to have common M&E framework (DiMonotoring)
      • Baseline study data need, data collection protocol and reporting harmonized,
    • Knowledge Sharing
      • One Exchange visit organized on livestock market co-management through public-private partnership (PPP) for Ethiopia and Uganda
      • One Regional Knowledge sharing fair organized, in partnership with other IGAD program, on cross-border drought resilience;
      • At least three Climate Outlook Forum (COF) participation supported for the project countries to enable disseminate climate early warning
      • Based on studies and policy review three (3) policy brief prepared and widely disseminated to key stakeholders






  • Regional Coordinator: Dr. Dereje T. Wakjira. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Tel +254 726173628
  • Operation Officer: Ahmed Mohamoud. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Tel +254 710939333
  • Ethiopia Team Leader: Sertse Sebhu. Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Tel +251 968566887
  • Kenya Team Leader:James Tendwa .  Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Tel: +254 721363 357 Website: www.resilience.go.ke
  • Uganda Team Leader: Dr. Stephen Kajura This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Tel+256772517218 Website: www.rplrpuganda.org



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