Livestock rearing is a major livelihood strategy and an important economic activity in the pastoral and agro-pastoral areas of IGAD member countries. If supported with appropriate policies, institutions and infrastructure, the sector can be an important source of food, employment and income for poverty reduction and food security in the region. Ethiopia, Kenya, and Uganda are the three IGAD member countries which were considered in this study. Each of these countries has livestock and livestock product related policies and regulatory frameworks that that address livestock rearing and trade related issues of animals and animal products. Apart from national policies and regulations, these countries have adopted bilateral agreements to expedite trade in animals and animal products. Kenya and Uganda entered into a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) as early as April 2013 to harmonize the assessment and control of trans-boundary animal diseases in areas around the northern border. The two countries also trade under a harmonized regulatory and Customs system. This was adopted under the East African Customs Union Protocol to promote free trade between the member countries.