The Uganda IDDRSI Coordination Mechanism will be housed in the office of the prime Minister whose mandate is enshrined in Article 108 A of the Constitution ‘as the Leader of Government Business in Parliament and be responsible for coordination and implementation of Government Policies across Ministries, Departments and other Public Institutions’’. It will also be informed by the country programming paper and IDDRSI strategy. Key principles of the Coordination Mechanism will include government ownership and leadership, multi-sectoral representation, multi-stakeholder representation and participation, sustained technical assistance and capacity building.
At Sector level the designated lead ministries and agencies will coordinate the sectoral technical stakeholders in implementation of IDDRSI Priority Intervention Areas (PIAs) thus:
- An Inter-Ministerial Policy Committee:
This body is constituted by all the Ministers of all the relevant ministries, as the highest decision making organ. The key functions of the Inter-Ministerial Policy Committee will be provision of policy directions, political support, linkage to cabinet and parliament and reporting to the Prime Minister, who will be the patron of the Coordination Mechanism in the Country.
The Inter-Ministerial Policy Committee will be composed of:
1/ Hon. Minister, Office of the Prime Minister - Chair
2/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of Agriculture, Animal industry and Fisheries - Co-chair
3/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of trade, industry and Cooperatives - Member
4/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Member
5/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development- Member
6/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development - Member
7/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of Gender, labour and social Development - Member
8/ Hon. Minister, Ministry of water and Environment - Member.
9/ Uganda Wildlife Authority (Ministry of Tourism, wildlife and Antiquities) -Member
10/Ministry of lands, Housing and Urban Dev’t. -Member
11/ Min of Local Government-Member
12/Min of Health -Member
13/Min of Education and Sports- Member
- Steering Committee:
The Technical Committee is constituted of the permanent Secretaries, Directors and Commissioners in line Ministries, key technical development partners, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), private sector and the head of the secretariat from OPM. The main functions of the Technical Committee will include supervision and back stopping of the implementation of the IDDRSI, guiding resource mobilization and allocation, monitoring progress, and reporting to the Inter-Ministerial policy Committee.
- Technical Committee:
This is a multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder committee, with leadership from OPM. The membership will include middle level/ technical staff from line MDAs (Ministries, Development partners/Agencies),NGOS/CSOS and private sector. The main functions will be: Coordination, monitoring and Evaluation, Planning and Budgeting, Implementation, Information Management, Capacity Building, Lobbying and Advocacy, Resource mobilization and Reporting to the Steering Committee.
- At Sectoral Level.
Designated lead ministries and agencies will coordinate the technical stakeholders in implementation of IDDRSI Priority Intervention Areas (PIAs) thus:
Short summary about the country
- Landlocked Uganda has transformed itself from a country with a troubled past to one of relative stability and prosperity.
- Since its independence from Britain in 1962, the east African nation has endured a military coup, followed by a brutal military dictatorship which ended in 1979, disputed elections in 1980 and a five-year war that brought current President Yoweri Museveni to power in 1986.
- The country has also had to contend with a brutal 20-year insurgency in the north, led by the Lord's Resistance Army.
- While the country has won praise for its vigorous campaign against HIV/AIDS it has also attracted international attention for its hardening stance against the LGBT community.
- Pastoralism in Uganda Historically, pastoralism in Uganda has been viewed as a retrogressive and backward practice. Official policy has been discouraging pastoralism in favour of sedentary livestock production. Despite this, the pastoralist subsector has continued to contribute significantly to the economy of the country in both direct monetary terms and non-monetized contributions like manure, traction power, livelihood safety nets and ecological conservation.
- Drylands account for over 90% of the national herd of cattle with 50% of the cattle owned by pastoralists. Despite this strong standing, nowhere else in the country are poverty indicators more glaring? With over 40% of the pastoralists living under the poverty line, Drylands constitute a severe poverty hotspot.
- This situation gets worse when other aspects of poverty are factored in. It is notable, however, that pastoral livestock production makes a very significant contribution to both the GDP (7.5%) and the agricultural GDP (AGDP) (17%).
- The earnings from the exports of hides and skin generated US$19m in 2001/02, fourth after fish (US$88m), coffee (US$85m), and maize (US$20m). A recent study (Oxfam, 2003) in the pastoralist districts of Kotido, Nakasongola and Sembabule indicated that even here, district revenues on account of livestock activities alone amounted to 60%, 65% and 50% of total revenues respectively. Despite this contribution, pastoralists remain a forgotten lot in national development plans. Clearly, there is minimal direct investment into livestock production, both at national or local government level.
- The potential opportunity cost of the continued exclusion of livestock in general and pastoralists in particular from mainstream economic activities has been estimated at UGX24 billion per annum, excluding middlemen, industries, exporters and non-monetized activities. Without productivity increases, pastoral communities in the drylands can only develop as fast as the animal population they depend on.
- However, present livestock populations are in many cases close to or above the maximum a diminishing resource base can support over the longer term, suffice it to note that increased livestock productivity is hardly possible when human and animal populations are pressing constantly against resource base limits.
- There is limited crop production in the drylands; moreover, this is destined for household use or local trading at relatively low prices. Local and transboundary rustling are depleting the cattle in the northeast. All these curtail incentives to invest in land resources conservation.
- The current government drive for modernizing agriculture has apparently tended to focus more on production of crops while the livestock 8 Dryland Husbandry in Uganda sector has continued to receive minimal attention despite its big contribution of about 38% to the agricultural GDP. It is important to note, however, that modernization of the livestock sector should be dully addressed giving special consideration to the pastoral livestock producers inhabiting the rangelands of Uganda because they occupy approximately 35% of the total area and keep about 95% of the total cattle population of the country.
Common Natural Disasters in Uganda
- Droughts and Famine: Parts of the district are affected by famine due to prolonged periods of drought occurring in a cyclic pattern every 3 to 5 years. The area reaching the Ankole cattle corridor is most affected with significant food insecurity, often necessitating humanitarian assistance; there is a high prevalence of under nutrition especially in children.
- Epidemics and diseases: They are the single most important public health emergency in the districts of Uganda and neighboring countries. Most threatening includes Ebola, Marburg, Cholera HIV/AIDS and Malaria. While 90% of the country is hyper-endemic for malaria, some high altitude regions in Western Uganda are continually threatened by epidemics of un-stable malaria.
- Floods: Floods are relatively common in parts of Uganda, especially during the cycle of adverse weather that follows the El-Niño years. Recently, there was a large scale disaster of floods in the areas of Kasese and in the East.
- Land-slides: In Uganda, areas prone to landslides include the mountainous areas of the East and the Rwenzori Region. Human activities like agriculture on these hilly places accelerate the effects.
- Hail Storms: Parts of Uganda have frequent hail storms characterized by heavy rains and violent winds. Hailstorms and thunderstorms result in destruction of crops, animals, public infrastructure and human settlements.
Crop Pests and diseases: Pests and diseases are a major problem and may lead to food insecurity. Common pests in include weevils and caterpillars; diseases include coffee wilt, banana wilt and cassava mosaic.
Earth Quakes: especially in the Western Rift Valley in the Rwenzori Region. Many parts of Western Uganda are prone to seismic activity. In 1994, an earthquake hit districts in Rwenzori region affecting over 50,000 people. There were numerous tremors in 2007.
Man-Made Disasters of Major Importance in Uganda
Conflict, wars and Internal Displacement: In the past Uganda has been affected by successive armed conflicts. Between 1980 and 1986, a civil conflict raged in Uganda had many activities going on in Uganda. The ADF armed conflict of 1994 to 2000 also left many people killed and many losing property. The LRA did many atrocities in Northern Uganda.
Fires: Fires are a common occurrence in Kamwenge including both bush fires and electricity fires caused by haphazard electrical wiring and poor construction standards.
Transport accidents: According to WHO, Uganda ranks 2nd only to Ethiopia in the magnitude of Road Traffic Accidents in Sub-Saharan Africa. These mainly occur in vehicles that transport larger numbers of people and are confounded by long distance trucks that transport agricultural produce from Uganda to the world markets.
Environmental Degradation: Over the last 3 decades, there has been significant damage to the environment, increasing the potential for major natural disasters. This is closely related to deforestation in the rural areas and encroachment into wetlands in the urban areas.
Vulnerability Assessment: Communities in Uganda are highly vulnerable to the hazardous effects of disasters. Factors most responsible for this are: Poverty, age, gender, disability, lack of information, lack of experience, inadequate health care, geographical isolation of some underserved areas, inadequate coordination, malnutrition, inappropriate development policies, food insecurity, societal stratification, poor water and food quality, limited district level resources, politics, graft, lack of social order, high burden of illness and inadequate disaster preparedness or mitigation.